Is there a gender wage gap? Are women paid less than men to do the same work? Christina Hoff Sommers, Resident Scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, explains the data.
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If, for the same work, women make only 77 cents for every dollar a man makes, why don’t businesses hire only women? Wages are the biggest expense for most businesses. So, hiring only women would reduce costs by nearly a quarter – and that would go right to the bottom line. Don’t businesses want to be profitable? Or, are they just really bad at math?
Well, actually, it’s the feminists, celebrities and politicians spreading this wage gap myth who have the math problem.
The 77-cents-on-the-dollar statistic is calculated by dividing the median earnings of all women working full-time by the median earnings of all men working full-time. In other words, if the average income of all men is, say, 40,000 dollars a year, and the average annual income of all women is, say, 30,800 dollars, that would mean that women earn 77 cents for every dollar a man earns. 30,800 divided by 40,000 equals .77.
But these calculations don’t reveal a gender wage injustice because it doesn’t take into account occupation, position, education or hours worked per week.
Even a study by the American Association of University Women, a feminist organization, shows that the actual wage gap shrinks to only 6.6 cents when you factor in different choices men and women make. And the key word here is “choice.” The small wage gap that does exist has nothing to do with paying women less, let alone with sexism; it has to do with differences in individual career choices that men and women make.
In 2009, the U.S. Department of Labor released a paper that examined more than 50 peer-reviewed studies and concluded that the oft-cited 23 percent wage gap “may be almost entirely the result of individual choices being made by both male and female workers.” Well, let’s look at some of those choices.
Georgetown University compiled a list of the five best-paying college majors, and the percentage of men or women majoring in those fields:
Number 1 best-paying major: Petroleum Engineering: 87% male
Number 2: Pharmaceutical Sciences: 48% male
3: Mathematics and Computer Science: 67% male
4: Aerospace Engineering: 88% male
5: Chemical Engineering: 72% male
Notice that women out-represent men in only one of the five top-paying majors – by only a few percentage points.
Now consider the same study’s list of the five worst paying college majors:
Number 1: Counseling and Psychology: 74% female
Number 2: Early Childhood Education: 97% female
3: Theology and Religious Vocations: 66% male
4: Human Services and Community Organization: 81% female
5: Social Work: 88% female
Here, it’s the women who lead in all but one category. Even within the same profession, men and women make different career choices that impact how much money they make. Take nursing, where male nurses on the whole earn 18% more than female nurses. The reason? Male nurses gravitate to the best-paying nursing specialties, they work longer hours, and disproportionately find jobs in cities with the highest compensation.
For the complete script, visit https://www.prageru.com/videos/there-no-gender-wage-gap
Additional differences for women. More time off for individual illness and family illness. Breaks for childbirth often impacts seniority and reduces implied qualifications for higher positions where absence could impact the business. Applies for jobs with lower travel, lower danger, better chances of getting home to pick up baby, cook, clean.
.Gov website in New Brunswick, Canada shows the gap for the province as about 8.7%. It does already factor hours worked in that number. Main employment of women is retail. Main employment of men is trucking. Nothing stopping women from getting a truck license except women themselves. Many do not want to do the dirty, dangerous work. Working in a nice cozy retail store at the mall is reasonable work but not particularly dirty or dangerous by comparison.
Edit; If an man out earns a woman she becomes part of the 80% of household spending that is done by females. Men don't try to earn more than women, they try to earn more FOR women. If a female out earns the male she will most likely divorce him after a while.
Nice and eye-opening, thanks. (I'm also years late, but apparently that's how youtube recommendations work.)
On the other hand, even IF 99% of the "worse paying majors" were male, I still would like to see teachers (early childhood educators included), psychologist and social workers earn more! There is no sexism in this wish either, just the thing, that these people do a lot to individuals and (in my opinion) should be valued more. This claim (that women chooose to study things that lead to lower wages) sounded a bit like blaming women for earning averagely somewhat less, but then who would do these jobs? Also if some men didn't do the dangerous jobs, who would? Trust me, there are men who would never work on an oil rig and there are women who would never even touch an elderly gentleman or lady or care for them professionally (if they can't do this on their own, I forgot the word for the home where they live then.) No, I do not compare these jobs and you should neither do that, because they are enterily different and not comparable.
I would like to add the situation in my country. Beginner teachers earn circa ~628/650 USD per month without the taxes! Nurses or social workers who work with the elderly or homeless for example earn even less. I now simply don't trust my owm calculations because it seems so few (like 4-5 dollars/hour) compared to American wages. (Yes, things are a bit cheaper there and we have free universities, but my point is that these people do not earn enough money regardless of their gender.)
Edit for correction of sentence-structures. (I struggle with English.)
I think any hypothesis about a subject (including this one) should be discussed openly and objectively. What bothers me is the feeling I get from reading all the comments. Most of you think the problems that women who call themselves feminists talk about are not true! Most of the people who comment are very supportive of rigid gender lines and responsibilities. And I don’t label myself anything. I am myself. Some people may call me a feminist but I’m a human being who is trying to express myself and freely be myself without hurting anyone. The fact that I am a women should not exclude me from any profession. It should not force me to be “feminine”. It shouldn’t force me to have children. Again I think most of the people who comment here would want all these things to restrict me or be denied to me. It’s very disturbing!
I choose to work 80 hrs in a booming oil industry. Have for over half my life now. But the guys I work with choose to work 100 or more hrs every week. I’m simply not as young as I used to be. But the truth is those guys CHOOSE to make more money than me. Just think of what it takes to put in over 100 every week. And think of any woman you know that is willing to do that
Women have more rights then men and they scream “OPPRESSION!” They get away with so much more. Ik men r idiots, but a women could hit a man and they won’t get punished for it, but if a guy hits a women, they get put in jail for assault. Just bc men r stronger, doesn’t mean we’re all misogynistic and we always beat women up and rape them. Men get raped, it doesn’t happen very often, but it happens. The problem with feminists is that they accuse all men of being assholes, and we’re f**king not. My sister says all guys want the same thing and that is not true at all
I was doing a research on wage gap and come across this video.
Why does the data she got from AAUW say differently ?
I don't know if I read the research wrong or the comment section just blown up without factproof with simple googling?
The salary gap is affected by the choices of individuals, so we must ask ourselfs what is driving each sex towards specific career paths. I´m not satisfied with the simple awnser that the gender gap just "cant be explain" and that it simply is. There are various factors that can be properly studied: social standars/cultural customs / companies and countries´ policies... , so maybe in order to explain what drieves people to make certain decitions, we have to look at they´re surroundings, and see if There is were the problem lies.
Males' wallet makers and sellers get paid significantly less than women's purses. Address that pay gap. (If it's wrong based on interest they so is comparing sportsman and sportswomen).
Male jewellery makers and sellers are paid significantly less than female jewellery makers and sellers. So it's evolutionary biology!! Grow up and Accept it.
1:19 "Actual wage gap shrinks to only 6.6 cents when you factor in different choices men and women make."
1:27 "The small wage gap that does exist has to do with differences in individual career choices."
BUT THAT'S EXACTLY WHAT THE STUDY ACCOUNTED FOR!!!
@Sid Fine, so there's a second study showing that the wage gap shrinks further? That's great, but why don't we get to see it? It does seem like the second argument is still based on the first study - that study didn't account for primary career choices, but when factoring all other things, wage gap shrunk to 6.6%. Therefore, surely, if we factor primary career choices, it will go to 0%. That's the argument, if I'm being benevolent. But that's not a good argument, because it lacks that second study.
No, it didn't. The study doesn't account for primary career choices for women against men. It accounts for the variables between men and women that involves them both in any specific career to see if there is an actual wage gap ie in the medical sector if you compare a specific type of male doctor against that of a female doctor doing the same job. Once all these have been factored, the remaining difference is purely based upon PRIMARY career choices by women and the income potential to that of men. eg women choosing to become nurses whereby men primarily becoming dcotors.
Why do you think that women gravitate toward industries such as social services and education? Perhaps it is because those jobs facilitate child caring duties. It is undeniable that the majority female children are raised to see their mothers taking the lead in this regard to the point that even on an unconscious level careers can be influenced by the structural demands on women. The disparity between women and men is not just on an income level.
Talking about the gender wage gap is besides the point, because even the concept "Equal pay for equal work", built into law, violates legal rights that are owed to a person and constitutes a due process violation. Namely, if I, due to my personal preferences, want to give more of my own money to a man than to a woman, that is my personal choice. It's my money and I have the right to do what I want with it. If I prefer working with men more then with women, and thus, pay a man more than a woman for equal work, no one has the right to intervene and tell me how to manage my own money. It is MY money. But the government does. It forces me to pay them equally. It forces me to give my own money to someone although I entered no legally-binding relationship with that person, but is all based on the ideological concept of 'equality'. Given the fact that lawmaker's ideological concept, be it equality or whatever, cannot trump legal rights that are owed to a person, basing the laws on the concept "Equal pay for equal work" is a due process violation.
So all men are working and women who think they are equal under God and the law are not??? Please give us your sources. If you hate women that is not a crime as long as you do not physically attack us??? Hate of women is not a crime so you are safe.
I was speaking to someone who labels themselves as a feminist. We were having quite a relaxed conversation about it. I asked what rights men have today that women don't have. I never got an answer. I heard the usual rantings we hear from "Feminists" about a pay-gap, but nothing else. I'm sure there are other issues, but the very fact that she couldn't think of any and calls herself a feminist screams volumes.
Let’s just clear up this imaginary pay-gap. There is not one single employer who pays a man more than a woman doing the same job. That has been illegal since 1963. It is true that men on the whole get paid more than women on the whole. The commonly regurgitated statistic for this is that women are paid 21% less than men. This may well be true, but it doesn’t take into account the disparity of hours worked by men and by women. On average women work 7.8 hours per day where men, work on average 8.2 hours per day. Therefore, the hours worked by men and by women accounts for 5% of the difference. A study conducted by The Guardian Newspaper in 2016 clearly shows that more women graduate from university than men, but fewer of these women apply for graduate jobs than the men. Also, female graduates who do apply for graduate jobs are far more likely to secure employment than men.
So let’s just recap. more women are graduating than men, but more of those men apply for graduate jobs meaning that a portion of those graduate women are applying for lower paid jobs and are working fewer hours once employed. When all the relevant statistics are taken into account, we can see the real reason for the pay-gap and it has nothing to do with gender inequality. Rather gender equality of choice.
To narrow the pay-gap further, we would have to take away a portion of women’s freedom of choice and demand they work longer hours in the jobs they are choosing not apply for.
Feminists complaining about the “Gender pay-gap” want to take away women’s freedom of choice. Modern feminism centres on equality of outcome and ignores the equality of opportunity.
Now let’s look at some of the social issues affecting men.
94% of work place deaths are of men. (This indicates that the jobs men work are more dangerous, on average, than those worked by women)
99.9% of deaths due to war are of men.
75% of suicides are men.
76% of murders are of men.
45% of domestic abuse victims are men (which we rarely to never hear about)
Men serve 63% more prison time than women for the same crimes.
71% of Homeless people are men.
There is also:
Lower life expectancy for men.
Child custody inequality.
Child Support inequality.
False Rape Allegations going unpunished.
Criminal Court Bias.
Social misandry in education and the media.
Boys falling drastically behind in education (mainstream education is tailored for females).
Alcoholism affects twice as many men as women.
Infant Genital Mutilation affects 23% of men and 5% of women worldwide, yet FGM gains much more exposure.
Men have little to no say in regards to reproductive and family planning issues.
There is a huge lack of resources and compassion to male victims of domestic violence.
Prostate cancer has higher mortality rates than breast cancer with a vast disparity of exposure.
It's worth taking note of these to gain a balanced view, and not form opinions from what the majority of the media tells you to think.
Feminism isn’t about gender equality. That movement already exists. It’s called ‘Egalitarianism’.
There are many professions dominated by men for which the inequality goes unnoticed by feminists.
Building and construction
Aircraft pilots and flight engineers
Iron and Steel workers
Power line installers & repairers
Let me end this with a question. What rights do men have that women don’t?
The issue is not that women are paid less, it's that we value traditionally "masculine" jobs more than "feminine" ones. Teachers, nurses, and caretakers are seen as less valuable than engineers, scientists, and other "masculine" careers. Ultimately, both women and men should have the freedom to choose a career without having to think of preserving their masculinity or femininty. We need both men and women in teaching. We need both men and women in engineering. We need both men and women in the military. We just have to work together.
I agree to the point both women and men should have the freedom to choose career. But we do not need more women in science and military. We need only those of them, who are good at it, and sinserly like that choice. Not even one more. Same about guys in teaching.
Agreed. The 'wage gap' is not a problem that can be solved through legislation or by any individual company's hiring practices, it's a social issue. Until society values social services and is willing to pay the taxes to support higher salaries for teachers and social workers and counselors, there will be no change. And the video didn't even touch on things why men have the freedom to work long hours and be on call, which is frequently because they have a wife at home taking care of house and family. She sacrifices her career for his. Sure, that's still a choice, but it's a choice which is often made because it is easier and more socially acceptable for women to take on that role.
In South Korea, a feminist lawyer appeared on TV to talk about wage gaps and claimed victims by women.
However, most of her low farm consists of men.
This is "Loman if I do it, adultery if others do it."
other than the fact that women are required currently and for the foreseeable future to give birth to children and tend to take care of things around the house and of the children. Are you saying that both parents should be on call and willing to leave children on their own? also said gap isn't looking like it will close till 2050.
@Edward Kelly Yes all true. But none of what you've written demonstrates that an actual wage gap exists due to gender bias. Your response enforces why the wage gap statistic is incorrect as it doesn't factor in the variables you mentioned.
So again, what are you trying to say here?
@Sid other than the fact that women are expected to do those things. Women who are pregnant or thought to become pregnant get even less than other women while a man with a pregnant wife or kids get more money. It is more than just the choices women make, its the fact they have to carry a child, and the fact that society expects women to be the primary caregiver to the children
What is your point? This isn't telling women not to look after their children or have a family. It is demonstrating that the wage gap doesnt exist if you factor in the variables and life choices that women make.
My mom told me two different people. one a man and one a woman, were in the same job one after the other. They had the exact same work and the same hours, but not the same salary. Also, works consider less good the moment women work in them. I don't live in USA, but here it works this way.
Undervalued? We live in a capitalist society. Income is based upon the profitability of the sector you work within.
Social work and counselling are not hugely profitable areas. They don't generate billions of dollars in revenue.
You either choose to work in a profession where you can earn lots of money or you don't.
Women choose job security and happiness. This means you're not working a life-threatening, extremely strenuous job or one that requires you to work night and day to succeed whereby most men do.
The maths is pretty simple. The more profitable the sector the more income you can earn. However, to do so means stress and long hours.
The wage gap does exist, men earn more than women, look at any statistic and it will tell you that and you can't deny it because it is a proven fact.
But saying that it's "because of the patriarchy, and this, and that, and blah blah blah" is absolute Hogwash.
This is still where you are incorrect about any kind of earnings gap (pertaining to gender). The gap doesn't exist at all. To say that it is still only 6.6% makes anyone with this claim incorrect. This is why politics suck. A specific political stance will try to generalize everyone and think they are compatible within the generalization. We are not like apples and oranges. The comparisons are more like beets and bananas. There has been a controlled scientific study that took a singular case under extreme measures to further disprove such a myth. The males and females were of same age, applying for the same position, ethnicity and even the experience behind it. The employer was told that the first 10 being hired could not have an increased starting pay if negotiated for it and needed 5 females as well as 5 males. 2 from each gender had to fit low class criteria. The same rule also applied for black skinned and white skinned. And so it had less discriminative power, the other 2 of each gender were going to be split the same way, but of middle class. This was a closed off 5 year experiment. Do you know what happened within this study? The men did 65% more work than the average employee, all 5 asked for more hours after 2-3 weeks (this does not including job training) and 3 asked for a raise after the first year while the counterpart (female) was 30% less productive than the average employee. 2 females (one lower class black and one middle class white) took 5 days off (after 2 years). Only one of the females asked for a raise after 4 in a half years. Additionally, 4 of the males were looking for another part time job while working with the one they had. No wonder the gap is seen as "a large problem between genders". Males just seem to work harder and they are reprimanded for it.
WNBA players make 70k average. Some starting salaries are 50k.
The NBA minimum salary is 585k.
Gender gap is real. The women have just as much credentials playing since grade school - college.
Now that i have said that. Are there any women who want to date me for standing up for them?
Your Name Here Take note that the WNBA revenue is only 60 million dollars as of last year, and the NBA’s revenue is 7.4 billion dollars as of last year. The reason the salaries are so low is if they try to raise the salary then the WNBA Won’t have enough money to keep its self going. The NBA has enough money to pay the players millions of dollars because they’ve made 7.4 billion dollars.
I like this video but I do wonder about when she talks about the choices women make when it comes to job choices. Because in the highest paying jobs listed, women are less likely to take them because of the discrimination and expectations they face. So when I look at it, they present an illusion of choice that it is 100% women's choice to not take those jobs. For the most part, this is a well presented video but I'm just thinking about that. So maybe it's not only a wage gap problem but also the gender disparity in fields of work.
You are right. There is a disparity within the workplace. High-end jobs are primarily taken by men.
However, bear in mind the number of men gunning for these positions in comparison to that of women. You can't get there without making many/huge sacrifices in your personal life. Most women are not willing to do this. So take into consideration the possible percentage of how many women going for these positions compared to men and then factor the possibility of actually getting it given the competition.
Nonetheless, we can't disregard the possibility of gender bias. But instead of moaning about it, women should just start their own firms and companies right? Innovation, imagination and risk are the keys to becoming successful. But they don't because men are willing to take more risk than women are as a whole. Most women look for job security and happiness whereby the percentage of men willing to do the opposite for success is far greater.
This is the problem with society. We pass laws for equality, we do everything to ensure everyone has the same equal opportunity and yet people complain there is bias but choose to not do anything themselves to overcome it, rather we find excuses why women aren't in these positions and try to force companies to hire more women even if they aren't as good as their male counterparts.
In an earlier video named "War on boys" from PragerU, Christina Hoff said that boys are lacking behind girls in academics and we need to change the system. Girls make the "choice" to study, while boys don't as much.
In this video, she says women have lower wages because of their "choice" of job, and it's completely okay.
It shows why PragerU is one of the most biased YouTube channels.
*Shut down "Wage Gap" discussions by pressing them on the **_far_** more outrages "DEATH Gap" in the workplace.* Until they shush about the wage gap, all they should hear from us is:
It's hard to take anything from PragerU seriously because it's funded by right wing billionaires with their own agendas. Rather than look at jobs at both ends of the spectrum, highest vs. lowest, why not look at jobs where men and women participate equally? By the way, women choose to be lawyers, doctors and scientists too. Why not focus on salaried OR hourly wage rather than saying this is all overtime. There are always ways to make statistics bend to make the point you are trying to make. I think this video makes some points that are interesting but it also leaves a lot out of the conversation. You can't just swallow whatever gets fed to you on the internet.
@Robert D Your message won't get through. The same person saying don't swallow what you hear (even though it has been fully explained to the smallest details) will believe something at face value and disregard anyone that says otherwise. Even if facts are presented.
I've been an accountant for decades. I've seen lots of payrolls. There is no wage gap of any significance between men and women for the same work under the same circumstances and it is not at all uncommon for women to be paid slightly more. Google did an investigation recently to get to the bottom of the pay gap variance between male and female engineers. They got to the bottom of it all right. Discovered that it was the men who were making less when a discrepancy existed.
Pharmaceutical sciences 48% male? This is sexist and needs to stop, as a male I demand equality, 48% is unacceptable... What's that? Sexism only works the other way around? Nevermind, nothing to see here.
You know this world? This sad, doomed little world? It needs you. It needs every last Winchester it can get, and I will not let you die. I wont let any of you die. And I wont let you sacrifice yourselves, you mean too much to me! To everything! Yeah, you made a deal. You made a stupid deal, and I broke it. Youre welcome.
Castiel is an angel. He manifests on Earth inside his vessel, Jimmy Novak. He is the only angel that is shown to have been resurrected after having been killed, and he has been resurrected more than once.
Many angels laid siege to Hell to rescue Dean, but it was Castiel who ultimately pulled Dean out. According to Castiel, he did so "Because God commanded it." His hand print was burned into Deans left shoulder. Castiel is amongst a group of angels who manifest on Earth to stop the breaking of the the 66 Seals which will release Lucifer and start the Apocalypse. Over time he develops an empathy for the Winchesters, in particular Dean. When he learns that Michael actually intends for Lucifer to be released so he can kill him, Castiel tries to warn Dean, but is punished. Ultimately he breaks allegiance with Heaven to side with humanity.
With Lucifer free, and Castiel cut off from Heavens power, he decides to try and find the long absent God. When he learns God is not interested in intervening to stop the Apocalypse, he is devastated. He works to support the efforts of Sam, Dean and Bobby in stopping the battle between Michael and Lucifer.
After Sams sacrifice to defeat Lucifer, Castiel tries to rescue him from Lucifers Cage, but fails to retrieve Sams soul. In an attempt to prevent Raphael from restarting the Apocalypse, Castiel is tempted into an alliance with Crowley. The demon offers to help find Purgatory which can provide them both with great power. His efforts mean Castiel becomes increasingly distanced from the Winchesters as he hides his efforts from them, to the extent of breaking Sams mind in order to hinder their pursuit of him.
After taking in the souls of Purgatory, Castiel kills Raphael. He claims that he is no longer an angel, but the new "God." After smiting many people he considered to be doing evil in Gods name, he blacks out and loses control of his vessel, and his powers, to Leviathans possessing him. Conceding to Dean and Sams wishes, Castiel attempts to return all the souls and entities inside him to Purgatory.
After the souls leave Castiel, he apologizes to Dean, and pledges to find some way of redeeming himself. His plans are cut short when the Leviathans, who managed to hold on, take over his vessel. As the vessel rapidly deteriorates, the Leviathans march it into a reservoir, where it disappears beneath the water, releasing them.
Castiel is later found wandering naked in the woods near the water with no memory of who he is by Daphne Allen, who claims that God led her to him. She takes him home, he takes on the name Emmanuel Allen, and they marry. He discovers he has a gift for healing.
While searching for a way to help Sam, whose psychosis is killing him, Dean hears about Emmanuel from another hunter, and is shocked to discover it is Castiel. Castiel eventually regains his memories, and is horrified at what he did. He tries to heal Sam, but unable to do so, he chooses to take Sams madness into his own mind.